Tuesday, September 29, 2009

News---Unknown Soldier's Remains Found on Battlefield of Franklin Tennessee

On 14 May 2009, a construction worker unearthed human bones located in a shallow grave. The police were called, and upon their examining the bones and the buttons accompanying them. It was determined that this was the remains of a Civil War soldier. Many questions surround this soldier. Who was he? When did he die? Why was he buried in a coffin?

The soldier, who the majority of Franklin historians think was a Federal, was buried a quarter mile south of Winstead Hill, just a few yards west of Columbia Pike near the site of the McNeely house. He had been buried in a wooden coffin and was wearing a frock coat. The buttons found in the site were Union eagle and “I” buttons. These buttons were the means of identifying him as a Federal soldier. The nonregulation
mix of buttons, however, causes some to contend that possibly this was a Confederate wearing a Federal coat.
Two theories are proposed on why his remains were at this location. The initial theory placed the soldier as a member of the advanced Federal forces pursuing Hood in the Retreat from Nashville. The second suggests that he was part of Conrad’s or Lane’s forward line which was overrun, and, in the attack, the soldier was wounded and carried as a prisoner to this location where he died. However, unless he died some time after the battle, neither theory explains the burial in a coffin. Immediately upon the discovery of the remains, the City of Franklin under the leadership of Alderman Mike Skinner with the support of Mayor John Schroer, set out to protect the soldier and to make arrangements for placing him in a suitable burial site. The developer on whose property the soldier was found has underwritten the cost of the archeological study, the removal of the remains, and the reinterrment of the soldier.

The State of Tennessee is holding the remains until all legal requirements are met and arrangements for reburial are complete. Preliminary plans call for the soldier to be reinterred at Franklin’s historic Rest Haven Cemetery. An appropriate ceremony will be organized utilizing Civil War reenactors. The Civil War soldier will be laid to rest with the honor due. [The tombstone reades] Unknown: Battle of Franklin,
November 30, 1864.”

Text Source: Fort Donelson Camp Number 62 FORT DONELSON CAMP No. 62, Newsletter,
Volume 15 Issue No. 3 Summer 2009

Top Image: Memorial To the Union Dead, Rest Haven Cemetery, Franklin Tennessee

CWL----The Last Letter Home: On Campaign, On The Battlefield, In The Hospital, In Prison

Proud To Say I Am A Union Soldier: The Last Letters Home From Federal Soldiers Written During the Civil War, 1861-1965, Franklin R. Crawford, Heritage Books, 238pp., , 20+ photographs, notes, bibliography, index, $29.95.

Crawford has done good service to Federals who died during the war. Similar in many ways to a portion of Greg Coco's work focusing on Gettysburg, Crawford organizes and edits the letters home of 31 Federal soldiers. He is a careful researcher who offers between 15 and 40 notes for each of the individuals. Crawford's comments are not overwrought with Victorian pathos but are clear and concise summaries of the soldiers journeys, camplife and encounters on the battlefield.

Private Pliny F. White, Company E. 14th Vermont encounters drills, picket duty, drills, weapon care, drills after he enlists in early September 1862. With other Vermont regiments that enlisted during the early fall of 1862, the 14th travel to Washington D.C. to man the forts. White frets that his term of service will expire and no combat will be seen. Fortunately Confederate raider Mosby strays to close to Washington DC and two Vermont brigades are ordered out of the forts. Marching from northern Virginia, through Maryland, the Vermonters arrive in Gettysburg on July 2. He writes on July 2 to his sister, "The chances are that today we shall go into battle." Pliny must wait 24 hours for that to happen. Wounded severely in the arm, Pliny is sent on July 5 to the Seminary Hospital. His last letter is July 31. One other letter follows. Francis Bell writes to White's family that Pliny died at 10pm on August 5 due to fever and diahrea (sic).

Ernst Damkoehler,a veteran of the Prussian army and private in Company I, 26th Wisconsin, has commissary duties which bores him but does allow him to sell his free time as a horse groom. Safe during the 1862 and 1863 campaigns of the Army of the Potomac due to his rear eschelon duties. The Eleventh Corps in which Ernst serves is transferred to Chattanooga and participates in the breakout. Stripping the commissary to the barest essentials, Sherman orders commissary soldiers to be transferred to the front in the Atlanta campaign. His last letter home is April 17 1864. He is wounded and captured at Resaca, sent to Andersonville Prison. He dies in June 1864 from complications of the wound and diarrhea. Twelve graves in Anderson hold men of the 26th Wisconsin.

Crawford sets forth soldiers' remarks with a simplicity and directness that is sobering. Each soldier's story takes about 20 minutes to read. The impact of reading the soldiers' description of the ordinariness of their camps, their marches, their cooking, their drills helps the reader to understand these were ordinary men. Loving and missing terribly their families contrasts with the aloneness of being one dying soldier in the Seminary Hospital that held over 700 or being one of the fifty a day who died at Andersonville.

Readers who are reenactors or those who wish to recall to memory the lives of Civil War soldiers will enjoy this book. Also, those editing family letters would do well to look to this book as a model of a difficult task well done.

Monday, September 28, 2009

News---The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family Goes To the Bank With $25,000 Frederick Douglass Book Prize

Annette Gordon-Reed, Professor of Law at New York Law School, Professor of History at Rutgers University-Newark, and Visiting Professor of Law at Harvard University, has been selected as the winner of the 2009 Frederick Douglass Book Prize, awarded for the best book written in English on slavery or abolition. Gordon-Reed won for her book, The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family. The prize is awarded by Yale University's Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition, sponsored by the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History.

In addition to Gordon-Reed, the other finalists for the prize were Thavolia Glymph for Out of the House of Bondage: The Transformation of the Plantation Household and Jacqueline Jones for Saving Savannah: The City and the Civil War. The $25,000 annual award is the most generous history prize in the field.

"In Annette Gordon Reed's The Hemingses of Monticello, an enslaved Virginia family is delivered -- but not disassociated -- from Thomas Jefferson's well-known sexual liaison with Sally Hemings," says Bonner, the 2009 Douglass Prize Jury Chair and Associate Professor of History at Dartmouth College. "The book judiciously blends the best of recent slavery scholarship with shrewd commentary on the legal structure of Chesapeake society before and after the American Revolution. Its meticulous account of the mid-eighteenth century intertwining of the black Hemingses and white Wayles families sheds new light on Jefferson's subsequent conjoining with a young female slave who was already his kin by marriage. By exploring those dynamic commitments and evasions that shaped Monticello routines, the path-breaking book provides a testament to the complexity of human relationships within slave societies and to the haphazard possibilities for both intimacy and betrayal."

Text Source: Gilder Lehrman Center and Institute. The Institute maintains two websites: www.gilderlehrman.org and the quarterly online journal www.historynow.org

Sunday, September 27, 2009

News----Philly's Civil War Museum To Exhibit Artifacts at GNMP

Civil War Museum's Artifacts To Be Displayed Elsewhere, Edward Colimore, Philadelphia Inquirer, Septmeber 26, 2009.

They're stored in crates, bubble wrap, and archival boxes, locked away and awaiting their fate at an undisclosed Philadelphia storage facility. Under the packaging are wool uniforms and glistening swords worn by great generals of the Civil War, men who helped preserve the Union. Next to them are muskets, sidearms, and flags carried into desperate battles that determined the nation's fate. Since the closing of the Civil War Museum on Pine Street more than a year ago, at least 3,000 artifacts have been unseen by the public.

Now come plans to put them on display again at other institutions in Philadelphia and Gettysburg while the Civil War Museum of Philadelphia seeks funding for a new home in the city, museum president and chief executive officer Sharon Smith said. The collection would be exhibited and cared for over the next three years at the Gettysburg National Park Visitors Center, the National Constitution Center, and the African American Museum in Philadelphia, according to an interim plan.

Some of the historic treasures also would be in a traveling exhibit visiting sites in Pennsylvania and across the country during the 150th anniversary of the war. With no money for a building and no desire to leave Philadelphia, museum officials proposed the plan, which is expected to be approved in an order issued soon by Philadelphia Common Pleas Court Judge Anne E. Lazarus. "This is the best 'plan B' we could imagine because the collection will be taken care of and seen in different venues, and the museum board can concentrate on building a museum in Philadelphia," Smith said.

The board set the goal of opening the new museum by 2014, "but that's the outer edge," she added. "We hope to have it before then." Smith said the board would spend the next six to eight months revising its plans to increase public and private support for the museum and would identify a new location in an existing building in Philadelphia.

The Civil War institution's move follows the Rendell administration's refusal to provide $8 million to $10 million in promised capital funding. That prompted the loss of the museum's planned new location at the historic First Bank of the United States in the heart of Independence National Historical Park. Museum officials sought funding from the legislature, but with so many competing interests across the state, their pleas didn't receive the needed support. By July, Smith spoke of being forced to make preparations to move the collection within weeks if financial support couldn't be found. "Since we couldn't get funding to build a museum and we lost the First Bank," Smith said, "a new plan was needed if we are going to reach our ultimate goal."

Given all the possibilities, "the dissolution of the collection or permanent relocation outside of the city or state, this keeps the dream alive for a Civil War museum in Philadelphia," said Gary Steuer, the city's chief cultural officer. "This is an interim step that allows the collection to be kept intact and conserved to the highest standards with strong partners that have the capacity to place some of the collection in front of the public."

Steuer, who also serves as director of the city's office of arts, culture, and the creative economy, said the museum must now look for a combination of public and private financial support while waiting for the economy to pick up. The plan "is not my first choice," said State Rep. James R. Roebuck Jr. (D., Phila.) of West Philadelphia. "But it is a reasonable choice given the circumstances we find ourselves in. "Everyone was influenced by the downturn in the economy," he added, while laying much of the blame on Harrisburg. "It's frustrating that the political leadership is lacking. I do very much put that responsibility on the governor . . . possibly a new governor might help."

In the meantime, "the collection will go to Gettysburg for care in their state-of-the-art facility and for exhibition," Smith said. "Artifacts related to abolition and the U.S. Colored Troops will be exhibited at the African American Museum in a new exhibit they will develop." Artifacts from the collection also "will be used by the National Constitution Center for a 150th anniversary exhibit that will open here in Philadelphia and then travel in the commonwealth and nationally."

The Civil War Museum will work with the Gettysburg Foundation, which operates the Gettysburg National Park Visitors Center, and the National Constitution Center to choose the artifacts to be displayed in the center's exhibition as well as its traveling exhibition. "For us, the [Philadelphia Civil War Museum's] 'plan B' is our 'plan A,' " said Steve Frank, vice president of education and exhibits at the Constitution Center. "We're able to collaborate to develop a world-class exhibition." That exhibition will remain in Philadelphia for at least nine months before traveling," Smith said.

Dru Neil, a spokeswoman at the Gettysburg Foundation, said the organization would talk with the Civil War Museum of Philadelphia "about potential arrangements" for the collection. Nothing definite has been planned. An official at the African American Museum in Philadelphia, who declined to be named, said the museum "is happy to help in any way we can" but no arrangements have been made so far to receive artifacts. Former Union officers established the Civil War Museum in 1888, and with their families donated artifacts and memorabilia over the years until a house was bought in 1922 in the 1800 block of Pine Street to display the collection.

The collection, now in storage, includes items connected with the great heroes of the war along with others specifically connected to Philadelphia. There are blue wool frocks once worn by generals including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and George Gordon Meade; Confederate President Jefferson Davis' ornate smoking jacket, taken when he was captured in 1865; and plaster casts of Abraham Lincoln's face and hands. "This collection begs for display, interpretation, and public scrutiny," said Andy Waskie, a Civil War historian, author, and Temple University professor who serves on the board of the Grand Army of the Republic Civil War Museum and Library in the city's Frankford section.

"Given the fast-approaching sesquicentennial of the Civil War era, it is even more essential that this museum be preserved and open to the public and its collections available to inspire and educate." Philadelphia has "a unique opportunity" to tell the story of America, Roebuck said. "We tend to focus on the Revolution, but the Revolution became a reality when the principles were affirmed by the Civil War," he said. "We can tell both of those stories in Philadelphia. There are few other places like that."

Text Souce: Philadelphia Inquirer, September 26, 2009

Images's Source: Museum of the Civil War, Philadelphia, PA

Top Image: Stuffed head of Old Baldy, Gen. George G. Meade’s battle horse. Old Baldy served with Gen. Meade from 1861 to 1864, when he was retired due to his wounds. Old Baldy died of natural causes on a farm just outside Philadelphia in 1882.

Middle Image
: The smoking jacket of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. The smoking jacket was made for Davis by a slave in his household. The jacket was captured with the rest of Davis’ baggage on May 10, 1865, as he attempt to escape to Texas in order to carry on the Confederate war effort there.

Bottom Image: Battle log with artillery shell lodged in it from the Battle of Gettysburg. This log was cut from a tree of the western slope of Big Round Top in Gettysburg. On July 2, 1863, a shell from Reilly's North Carolina Battery fired at Union forces defending Little Round Top lodged in this tree. The tree fell in a storm in 1906, and the section was cut and preserved as a war relic.

Saturday, September 26, 2009

Off Topic Novel---1840s New Orleans Drenched In Heat, Opium, Yellow Fever, Mercury Poisoning, Sex and Voodoo

Yellow Jack, A Novel, Josh Russell, W.W.Norton Publishing, 250 pp, paperback, $14.95

In 1838 a fugitive apprentice photographer lands in New Orleans and sets up shops in warehouses, bedrooms, and the streets of antebellum New Orleans. In Paris he apprentice steals a camera from Louis Daguerre and in New Orleans takes the name Claude Marchand, is wildly successful as a portraitist, as a sexual partner to both a octroon voodoo practitioner and a adolescent heir to a fortune.

Millicent, the voodoo adept, offers her sexual services to the gossip columnist of the Daily Tropicto protect Claude's secret after Daguerre exhibits his process in Paris. Vivian, a 10-year-old becomes a subject of many of Claude's portraits. For several years, Vivian and Millicent vie for Claude's attention. At age 14 Vivian catches yellow fever and her family takes her to New York. Claude and Millicent marry, adopt deformed twins and experiment with a domestic life.

Vivian's return sets the sex and drugs back into action. Vivian, resumes her monthly portrait sitting, seduces Claude who intentionally wrecks his family and marriage. Millicent, voodoo practitioner, is not to be crossed. Fame and wealth come to Claude as a portraitist of the dead slain by yellow fever but contentment eludes him. Vivan's accepts a fiancee who soon dies of the plague.

There are three versions of this tale story and for the reader, three worlds collide: Claude's first-person narration, Millicent's diary entries, and an art historian's notes for an exhibition book. The voice of Claude's opium and mercury poisoning, the voice of Millicent's jealousy and revenge, and an anonymous art historian arid voice of Claude's neglected daguerreotypes.

Yellow Jack is also a collision of the works of Tennessee Williams (dramas set in one room, not Southern regionalism), Anne Rice (the soft porn books not the vampire books), and maybe William Faulkner (his view of manipulative women) and Flannery O'Connor (her naturalism in the damnation of souls). The scenes and settings are finely etched, the behaviors are well sketched but the characters are not compelling. In the Old English language the word 'wicked' meant 'twisted' like the wick of a candle. These characters are wicked in the Old English sense. Sadly wicked and sadly unredeemed, full of sound and fury, sex and mortality, but signifying very little. Death will come to all and madness might precede it.

Of course, that precisely might be the author's point.

Big Screen--- Dog Jack Premier: Chicago/Pittsburgh In October

Civil War's Dog Jack Saluted After 7 Score, 4 Years: Story of Pennsylvania Regiment's Faithful Comrade Brings Movie Crew to Soldiers & Sailors [National Museum], Lillian Thomas, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 10, 2005.

Dog Jack, a mixed-breed warrior, conducted himself with such valor during the Civil War that the men of the 102nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Regiment exchanged a Confederate prisoner for him when he was captured and commissioned a portrait of him at war's end.

The portrait hangs in Soldiers & Sailors National Military Museum & Memorial in Oakland: The brown-and-white dog with the patch on his left eye lies on the floor, his head turned to look straight at the viewer. Many years ago, Florence Biros of New Wilmington, Lawrence County, saw it and had to know more. Soon there was "Dog Jack," the novel. Now "Dog Jack," the movie -- starring a deaf female pit bull named Piglet -- is being filmed.

A plaque hanging by the large oil portrait of Dog Jack tells much of what is known about him. He was the mascot of the Niagara Volunteer Fire Co. on Penn Avenue, which was headquartered close to the present-day Engine Co. 3 in the Strip District. He went with the firefighters when they enlisted in the 102nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Regiment in 1861 "and fought in most of their battles except during his period of captivity when he was a prisoner of war," reads the plaque. He took part in the Wilderness campaign, the battle of Spotsylvania and the siege of Petersburg, all in Virginia.

Dog Jack was known for charging straight to the front lines during battle, said Josh Fox, a Soldiers & Sailors curator. He was said to understand bugle calls and obey orders only from his own regiment. After battle, he would roam the battlefield, seeking out wounded and dead comrades. He twice was taken prisoner.

"Captured at Salem Church, six months later he was exchanged for a Confederate prisoner at Belle Isle, Va." says the plaque (other accounts say he was traded for two Confederate POWs). "At Savage Station he was again captured but managed to escape." Jack was badly wounded at Malvern Hill in Virginia but returned to the regiment after recovering in a field hospital. His last campaign was in Maryland. On Dec. 23, 1864, Dog Jack disappeared in Frederick, Md., and was never found.

Some say the silver collar the men had gotten for him attracted the attention of thieves, who dispatched him. Or he may have been wounded in battle that day and gone off to the woods to die, said Fox. The men of the 102nd commissioned the portrait, modeled on a photograph of Jack in the same pose. Soldiers & Sailors also has a charcoal drawing of Dog Jack, this time lying at the feet of a Union soldier. To this bare-bones story, Biros added a runaway slave boy, Jed, who is Dog Jack's fast companion. Her self-published novel for young adults blends fictional characters like Jed with historical ones, including Chaplain Alexander Stewart of the 102nd, who wrote about Dog Jack in his journal.

Biros met Chicago director Edward McDougal at a conference and told him Dog Jack's story; he agreed it had the makings of a movie. McDougal wrote and is producing and directing the film. Californian Woody Young, the executive producer, has provided financial backing; there also are two local investors. It was filmed mainly in Illinois, but some battlefield scenes with historic re-enactors were shot near Darlington, Beaver County, last week, and on Friday, the Soldiers & Sailors ballroom was used for a dance scene.

McDougal expects a spring release of the 105-minute film. He declined to disclose the film's budget. Biros, decked out in a hoop skirt and corkscrew curls, was on hand at Soldiers & Sailors to watch the filming and pose for photographs.

Piglet also was sitting for photographs, in front of Jack's portrait. Except for more white in her coat and a svelter build, she's a ringer for Jack -- variously described as a mutt, a bulldog mix or a bull terrier -- with the same brown patch over the left eye. Piglet had not acted before, said trainer Tracy Doyle of Rockford, Ill., who found her in a Dumpster. A pit bull, she may have been abandoned when the breeder realized the 12-week-old puppy was deaf, said Doyle, who uses hand signals to give commands to Piglet.

Not being able to hear has its advantages during filming of noisy, chaotic battle scenes, and Piglet is a sweet-tempered dog who has tolerated with patience and grace the long waits, repeated takes, lengthy sessions of playing dead and handling by strangers. As to a female playing a macho warrior dog, Doyle said, "Lassie was played by seven generations of male dogs. This is payback." The film departs somewhat from the novel, said McDougal, who has directed a number of films aimed at young audiences, including "The Prodigy."

"We wanted to expand the audience [beyond children], and we wanted to grapple with some of the issues raised," including slavery and the role of slaves and ex-slaves in the war. The movie sets up a conflict within Jed, who is encouraged to seek revenge on his former master by an aggressive soldier of the regiment and urged toward forgiveness by Chaplain Stewart. The ending was the subject of much debate, McDougal said. Having Dog Jack just disappear or die didn't play well with focus groups. "We struggled with that," he said. "The fate of the dog is a major part of the film."

Text and Image Source: Pittsburgh Post Gazette

Image to the Right: Ann Redd and CWL, 2009. Ann's dress is lilac and was worn in the Dog Jack ballroom scene. CWL dressed as a civilian for the scene. The ballroom scene took almost four hours to shoot. Hope we are in it. The wetplate photo by Rob Gibson, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Dog Jack film's wwwsite link

Forthcoming and Noteworthy---Modern Perspectives On Civil War Medicine

Years of Change and Suffering: Modern Perspectives on Civil War Medicine, Guy R. Hasegawa and James M. Schmidt, editors, Edinborough Press, $29.95.

Peter D'Onofrio, Ph.D., founder and President of the Society of Civil War Surgeons, Years of Change and Suffering: Modern Perspectives on Civil War Medicine ". . . is [a]collection of essays by eight renowned authors and scholars give us a . . . vision of Civil War medicine. A must volume for the library of any Civil War medical historian."

Dr. Bill Gurley, editor, I Acted From Principle: The Civil War Diary of a Confederate Surgeon: Years of Change and Suffering is a collection of fresh and insightful essays on those essential, yet often overlooked, underpinnings of ...medical care in the Civil War. With impeccable scholarship each essay ...illuminates [the subjects'] importance to the progress of medical science, both during the war years and beyond.”

Dr. Gordon Dammann, founder of the National Museum of Civil War Medicine: "The new book Years of Change and Suffering is a must for all interested in the subject of Civil War medicine. Its authors are the elite of Civil War medical scholars of our time and they give a new, modern insight to the subject. Highly recommended."

James Schmidt is the author of Lincoln's Labels: America's Best Known Brands and the Civil War (2009) and Guy Hasegawa is the author of The Confederate medical laboratories, Southern Medical Journal, December 2003.

New and Noteworthy---Louisiana Tigers On The Way In and On The Way Out Of Pennsylvania

The Louisiana Tigers in the Gettysburg Campaign, June-July 1863, Scott Mingus, Louisiana State University Press, 352 pages,8 maps, bibliography, index, $34.95.
Previous works on Confederate brigadier general Harry T. Hays's First Louisiana Brigade--better known as the "Louisiana Tigers"--have tended to focus on just one day of the Tigers' service--their role in attacking East Cemetery Hill at Gettysburg on July 2, 1863--and have touched only lightly on the brigade's role at the Second Battle of Winchester, an important prelude to Gettysburg. In this commanding study, Scott L. Mingus, Sr., offers the first significant detailed exploration of the Louisiana Tigers during the entirety of the 1863 Gettysburg Campaign.
Mingus begins by providing a sweeping history of the Louisiana Tigers; their predecessors, Wheat's Tigers; the organizational structure and leadership of the brigade in 1863; and the personnel that made up its ranks. Covering the Tigers' movements and battle actions in depth, he then turns to the brigade's march into the Shenandoah Valley and the Tigers' key role in defeating the Federal army at the Second Battle of Winchester.

Combining soldiers' reminiscences with contemporary civilian accounts, Mingus breaks new ground by detailing the Tigers' march into Pennsylvania, their first trip to Gettysburg in the week before the battle, their two-day occupation of York, Pennsylvania--the largest northern town to fall to the Confederate army--and their march back to Gettysburg. He offers the first full-scale discussion of the Tigers' interaction with the local population during their invasion of Pennsylvania and includes detailed accounts of the citizens' reactions to the Tigers--many not published since appearing in local newspapers over a century ago.

Mingus explores the Tigers' actions on the first two days of the Battle of Gettysburg and meticulously recounts their famed assault on East Cemetery Hill, one of the pivotal moments of the battle. He closes with the Tigers' withdrawal from Gettysburg and their retreat into Virginia. Appendices include an order of battle for East Cemetery Hill, a recap of the weather during the entire Gettysburg Campaign, a day-by-day chronology of the Tigers' movements and campsites, and the text of the official reports from General Hays for Second Winchester and Gettysburg. Comprehensive and engaging, Mingus's exhaustive work constitutes the definitive account of General Hays's remarkable brigade during the critical summer of 1863.

Scott L. Mingus, Sr., has written numerous books on the Civil War, including the two volume Human Interest Stories of the Gettysburg Campaign, its companion volume Gettysburg Glimpses: True Stories from the Battlefield; and Flames beyond Gettysburg: The Gordon Expedition, June 1863. He lives in York, Pennsylvania. (Text from publisher)

CWL: Mingus' work is most likely the first that dwells exclusively on the Pennsylvania Campaign. Previous books on the Louisiana Tigers include Wheat's Tigers: The 1st Louisiana Special Battalion in the Civil War by Gary Schreckengost, Gentle Tiger: The Gallant Life of Roberdeau Wheat by Charles L. Dufour, and Lee's Tigers: The Louisiana Infantry in the Army of Northern Virginia by Terry L. Jones.

Off Topic---Carl Gustav Jung, Psychotherapist With Legacy of Star Wars Films

Jung: A Very Short Introduction, Anthony Stevens, Oxford University Press, 159pp, charts, illustrations, $11.95.

20th century Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology, Carl Gustav Jung's approach is influential and he is considered as the first modern psychologist to advocate that the human psyche is by nature religious. He advanced an understanding the mind through exploring of dreams, art, mythology, religion and philosophy. Both as a theoretical psychologist and a practicing clinician, his work explored other areas, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, literature and the arts. Jung's ideas of the concept of psychological archetypes, the collective unconscious and synchronicity are found in George Lucas' Star Wars films. Joseph Campbell, an educator and mythologist drew Lucas' attention to Jung's concepts of archetypes.

Emphasizing the importance of balance and harmony, Jung came to believe that people rely too heavily on science and logic and ignore the benefits of integrating spirituality and appreciation of unconscious realms. The process of integrating the conscious with the unconscious while still maintaining conscious autonomy of the individual is a central tenet of his analytical psychology.

The strength of Anthony Stevens' Jung: A Very Short Introduction is that in 159 pages the the birth, development and implications of Jung's central tenets are presented clearly and concisely. Jung, a very close student and personal friend of Sigmund Freud, repudiated Freudian as being a reductionist. Stevens captures Jung's growth into and then out of Freud's sphere of influence. In the course of a lifetime as a psychologist who read deeply in anthropology, Jung explored dimensions of theof the mind and creativity as represented in a variety of cultures. Lucas' use of Jungian archetypes, as described by Joseph Campbell in interiews with Bill Moyers in a PBS series, is what made the first Star War film attractive to many viewers.

News---Second Blockade Runner Found In Florida Riverbed

Civil War Steamship Is Found In Riverbed, Robbyn Mitchell, Tampa Bay Times, September 15, 2009

Burned and sunk, the steamship Scottish Chief lay at the bottom of the Hillsborough River for 146 years, a legend for its ability to keep Tampa afloat amidst the city's isolation during the Civil War. Underwater archaeologist John William Morris, with the Florida Aquarium, said Tuesday a research team has found the ship, a vessel not seen since the night in 1863 when Union troops raided the shipyard.

Morris' team first spotted the suggestion of a ship August 29 with new sonar technology, but it took until Tuesday to confirm that the shadowy trace in the sand was that of the lost blockade runner. The relic has been lodged underwater near the Interstate 275 exit to the Hillsborough Bridge, across from Blake High School, said aquarium spokesman Tom Wagner. The find comes one year after the discovery of the Kate Dale in the river, which had been reduced to wooden ship's ribs, he said.

"It helps tell the story. Some people weren't even aware Tampa even had a small role in the Civil War," Wagner said. "These boats were part of the skirmish at Ballast Point, the only battle in Tampa where soldiers lost their lives." As the story goes, naval bases at Egmont Key and Key West controlled the movement of ships in the Gulf of Mexico during the war, blockading Tampa Bay to keep supplies for the Confederacy from moving in or out.

The Scottish Chief and Kate Dale were two of the dozen ships that sailed through the blockades to Havana to trade cotton in exchange for medicine, liquor, food and other supplies. Union sailors slipped ashore in the darkness on Oct. 17, 1863, and marched 14 miles to the Jean Street Shipyard near what is now Lowry Park, where they captured and burned the two blockade runners, each loaded with cotton. The ships had been ferrying supplies to the town under the command of Tampa's first mayor, James McKay, according to historian Canter Brown Jr.'s Tampa In Civil War and Reconstruction.

McKay, who owned a local salt works, was aboard the Scottish Chief that night, and escaped along with several crew members, who alerted the town. The Union landing party soon had to contend with Tampa militia and Confederate soldiers in what became a running, bloody skirmish. The next day, Tampa lost its salt works, several homes and buildings as two Union ships systematic shelled Fort Brooke and the town.

Wagner said this story and others are crucial to Tampa's maritime history and will be documented in the aquarium's project. But excavation of the rear-wheel steamship will have to wait. "We had funding for the search and discovery, but excavation can be very timely and costly," Wagner said. "We'll try to get funding, but it boils down to dollars needed to do that and then the human resources needed to do the excavation."

Text and Top Image Source: Tampabay.com

Bottom Image Souce: The Wreck of the Kate Dale, weblog Battlefield Journal

Friday, September 25, 2009

New and Forthcoming Media---From Antietam Creek to the Pacific Theatre

New Dramatic Movie: Antietam Creek trailer. Set during the American Civil War, Antietam Creek tells the story of private Gabriel Buckley longing for home and the daughter he has never seen. A story of family, faith, and duty.

New Short Documentary: New York soldier's remains travel from the Cornfield in Antietam National Military Park to the National Cemetery in Saratoga, New York

HBO Film 'Pacific': Imperial Japan Trailer and God Created Japs Too . . . I Believe In Ammunition trailer

Top Image Source: Brothers' War

Middle Image Source:
Image Of Shepardstown Ford by Alfred Waud at 13th Massachusetts

Bottom Image Source: Review St. Louis

CWL--- John Brown: An Abolitionist Taliban?

Today in Springfield Illinois an American Taliban was arrested beside van-sized bomb parked in front of a federal courthouse.

In David Reynolds' biography of John Brown, the author makes the point that African-American historians have always understood John Brown. It is white historians who see 1) a lunatic, 2) a Bible thumper, 3.) a sociopath 4.) a failure as a family provider, 5.) a psychopath, 6) a dope, 7.) an egomaniacal individual seeking martyrdom 8.) a character who has wandered out of a Flannery O'Connor short story and into history.

Even 150 years removed from the October 16-17 raid on U.S. arsenal at Harper Ferry, it is difficult to understand John Brown's character and motivations. He has always been an enigma to CWL. Currently scholarship is discarding stereotypes of John Brown. David Reynold's biography, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, Evan Carton's biography, Patriotic Treason: John Brown and the Soul of America , Jon Stauffer's treatment of radical abolitionists, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race have set the stereotypes of John Brown on their heels.

Take a glace at the Gilda Lehrman Center's October conference on John Brown the last week in October.

How I Wrote John Brown, Abolitionist: A Cultural Biography (David Reynolds)
The Word and the Life: John Brown as Reader

The Wind and the Whirlwind: Can Biography Explain John Brown?

From Armed Propaganda to Creative Suffering: John Brown and Traditions of Expressive Violence

'I'll be John Browned': Abolition in the Southern Imagination

John Brown and the Tradition of Attacking Slavery at the Source

Was John Brown a Terrorist?

John Brown and the Legacies of Violence

Considerations on the Rhetoric of Race War in the Antebellum South

The Harpers Ferry Historical Association and the Harpers Ferry National Park will host a three day event on the anniversary of the raid. At 10pm on October 16 2009, a group will leave the Kennedy Farm where Brown's band was ensconced for 90 days. From the Kennedy Farm marchers will walk the five miles to the arsenal site and its iconic fire engine house building.

In period clothing and with a lantern, CWL will be among the marchers and will be searching for that 'period rush' for which reenactors long. Possibly even a few others on the march may have 'the black heart of abolitionism' pulsing wildly in their chests.

CWL--- To Underscore a Previous Point: West Pointers and A War To Not Lose the Peace

McClellan's War: The Failure of Moderation in the Struggle for the Union by Ethan S. Rafuse thorougly addresses the issue that the object of the war for Democratic Party military men was to achieve a military victory that would bring the South back into the Union without a disruption of slavery. For these men losing the war would be an independent Confederacy OR would be Southern states returning to the Union with severly disrupted social and economic conditions.

This book is highly recommended by CWL. Hardcover copies are available at Amazon.com for under six bucks.

Wednesday, September 23, 2009

CWL Queries Robert Hick's About Novelists Who Get It Right, Historians Who Get It Wrong, and Whether John Bell Hood Was A Laudanum Addict

Live Interview with Robert Hicks, author of A Separate Country and Widow of the South

Shared via AddThis

CWL spends 20 minutes with Thomas Hicks during an hour long interview on Hanchette Book Talk Radio.

Faulkner states that "The past is not dead; it is not even passed."

Jill Lepore states "Historians and novelists are kin . . .but they're more like brothers who throw food at each other than like sisters who borrow each other's clothes,"

Hicks states that historians have for a long time promoted a lie regarding John Bell Hoods' military decisions and the possibility of an addiction to laudanum. CWL asks if historians have been dismissive of his portrait of an unaddicted Hood. As a point of reference, Russell Bonds' recent work on the Battles of Atlanta War Like a Thunderbolt is close to Hicks' depiction of a general like Lee but without the popular stature.

Hicks recounts the efforts of Civil War veterans to establish a national military park at Franklin which was perceived as having the same impact as Gettysburg. The mayor of Franklin at the turn of the century dissuaded the U.S. War Department in considering Franklin as a site. Indeed, the one battle monument on the site of Franklin was torn down in 1901 because it was part of the Old South and was backward looking.

Hicks is reading Russell Bonds' War Like a Thunderbolt and is deeply appreciative of the work. He cites Shelby Foote's remark that history is story "not counting generals sitting on the tip of needle." Bonds history is driven by the story and has all the atributes of scholarly work.

Saturday, September 19, 2009

New in Paper---Women, Politics and The United States Sanitary Commission

Civil War Sisterhood: The U.S. Sanitary Commission and Women's Politics in Tranistion, Judith Ann Giesberg, Northeastern Press, bibliography, notes, 256 pp.,$26.00.

The Civil War-era U.S. Sanitary Commission (USSC) was the largest wartime benevolent institution. Judith Ann Giesberg demonstrates convincingly that that generation of women provided a crucial link between the local evangelical crusades of the early nineteenth century and the sweeping national reform and suffrage movements of the postwar period.

Drawing on Sanitary Commission documents and memoirs, the author details how northern elite and middle-class women's experiences in and influence over the USSC formed the impetus for later reform efforts. Giesberg explores the ways in which women honed organizational and administrative skills, developed new strategies that combined strong centralized leadership with regional grassroots autonomy, and created a sisterhood that reached across class lines. She begins her study with an examination of the Woman's Central Association of Relief, an organization that gave birth to the USSC. Giesberg then discusses the significant roles of Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, Dorothea Lynde Dix, and Henry Whitney Bellows, and considers the rationale for bringing women and men together in a collaborative wartime relief program. She shows how Louisa Lee Schuyler, Abigail Williams May, and other young women maneuvered and challenged the male-run Commission as they built an effective national network for giving critical support to soldiers on the battlefield and their families on the home front. ---publisher's description.

"Although the significant involvement of American women in the reform movements that swept the nation prior to the Civil War and afterward has often been noted in historical studies, women's wartime activity has tended to be ignored. Giesberg (history, Northern Arizona Univ.), the author of several articles on women and the war, presents a study designed to correct this picture. By examining gender differences in the leadership of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, she shows that women thought and acted independently in this highly developed female-driven system of soldier supply and that this activity prepared them for postwar, women-led reform work. Libraries that own Jeanie Attie's Patriotic Toil (Cornell Univ., 1998) and other studies of women's work within this organization may still wish to acquire this book, which offers not only a comprehensive view of female wartime activity but also establishes a link between their prewar and postwar political action. Recommended for larger public and all academic libraries."
-Library Journal review by Theresa McDevitt, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Friday, September 18, 2009

Forthcoming: The Charge---Treason Against Virginia

John Brown's Trial, Brian McGinty, Harvard University Press, 384 pp., October 15, 2009. $27.95.
Mixing idealism with violence, abolitionist John Brown cut a wide swath across the United States before winding up in Virginia, where he led an attack on the U.S. armory and arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Supported by a “provisional army” of 21 men, Brown hoped to rouse the slaves in Virginia to rebellion. But he was quickly captured and, after a short but stormy trial, hanged on December 2, 1859.

Brian McGinty provides the first comprehensive account of the trial, which raised important questions about jurisdiction, judicial fairness, and the nature of treason under the American constitutional system. After the jury returned its guilty verdict, an appeal was quickly disposed of, and the governor of Virginia refused to grant clemency. Brown met his death not as an enemy of the American people but as an enemy of Southern slaveholders.

Historians have long credited the Harpers Ferry raid with rousing the country to a fever pitch of sectionalism and accelerating the onset of the Civil War. McGinty sees Brown’s trial, rather than his raid, as the real turning point in the struggle between North and South. If Brown had been killed in Harpers Ferry (as he nearly was), or condemned to death in a summary court-martial, his raid would have had little effect. Because he survived to stand trial before a Virginia judge and jury, and argue the case against slavery with an eloquence that reverberated around the world, he became a symbol of the struggle to abolish slavery and a martyr to the cause of freedom.

Brian McGinty is an attorney and writer specializing in American history and law. He is also the author of Lincoln and the Court.

Text Source: Harvard University Press

Image Below: Photobucket

Forthcoming: Arkansas' Fields of Blood

Fields of Blood: The Prairie Grove Campaign , William L. Shea, The University of North Carolina Press, 392 pp., 41 illus., 17 maps, appendices, notes, bibliolography., index, $35.00 release date October 24, 2009.

Reviewed by William C. Davis:

More than 25 years ago millions of Americans who never heard of the Battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas, watched a Civil War battle being fought on that battlefield. It was not, as it happens, the Battle of Prairie Grove, but was rather, through the magic of Hollywood, the First Battle of Bull Run. It was the CBS Television mini-series “The Blue and the Gray,” and Arkansas was standing in for Virginia, with the battle scenes filmed on the Prairie Grove state park not far from Fayetteville. Now Prairie Grove stands up for itself to claim the attention of Civil War readers in the first substantial book ever written on the subject, and an outstanding piece of work at that. Fields of Blood: The Prairie Grove Campaign is written by William L. Shea, already the author of the distinguished Pea Ridge: Civil War Campaign in the West, which was a History Book Club selection some years ago. He brings the same exhaustive research to this project, the same crisp pen and the same sound judgments. Arkansas was crucial to control of the region west of the Mississippi River. Confederates needed it as a buffer to protect western Louisiana and as a launching pad for their ambitions of taking and holding Missouri. The Union had exactly the same interest in it for exactly opposite reasons. Not surprisingly, then, two of the three biggest battles of the war west of the river were fought there [the third being Westport, Missouri, in 1864]. At Prairie Grove, Major General Thomas Hindman hoped to drive the Union army commanded by Brigadier General James G. Blunt out of Arkansas for good, thus opening the way for an invasion of Missouri. Blunt was outnumbered and appealed for assistance, whereupon a now unknown officer named Francis J. Herron led 6,000 reinforcements on an incredible push that covered 110 miles in three days to reach Blunt just hours before the battle commenced at dawn. That feat alone would have won Herron the promotion he soon got that made him at the time the youngest major general in the history of the army [only to be outdone later in the war by George Armstrong Custer]. The battle that followed, like all the western battles, was rough and mean. William C. Quantrill’s bushwhackers took part in one of their few regular military actions, and so did several hundred Creek and Seminole Indians on both sides, some of them using the war to continue old clan feuds. The battle hinged on Hindman’s judgment, and with victory in his grasp he made the fatal error so often easily seen in hindsight. Blunt’s victory drove the Confederates out of northern Arkansas for two years and kept Missouri inviolate until the fall of 1864, unquestionably changing the course of the war west of the great river—just as surely as Shea’s Fields of Blood will persuade future filmmakers that the next time cameras roll at Prairie Grove it should be to capture the drama of that battle in its own right.

Source Text: History Book Club

Top Image Source: University of North Carolina Press

Bottom Image Source: painting by Andy Thomas, The Battle of Pairie Grove, The Ozarks' Civil War website

Tuesday, September 15, 2009

News---Gettysburg's Electric Map: The Movie

Electric Map Could Make A Comeback: New Gettysburg Visitor Center Could Host A Video Presentation Of The Map, Erin James, In York Daily Record Sunday News, September 13, 2009.

The Electric Map might have a place at the new Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and Visitor Center after all. More than 16 months since the famous map's last showing, visitors continue to ask about the Gettysburg icon, park spokeswoman Katie Lawhon said. She said rave reviews of the new museum center are often punctuated by a single comment from visitors: "I really wish that you still had the map."

Park officials have taken note, she said, and are in the middle of an "experiment" they hope will satisfy those visitors and critics who have argued that the 46-year-old Electric Map deserves to have a place in the new facility. Their idea is to create a film "based on the Electric Map presentation" that would orient visitors to Gettysburg history -- and give them an alternative to viewing the museum's current film, "A New Birth of Freedom." The details of how it would work are still sketchy, but Lawhon said the Electric Map film has potential to create a better visitor experience.

"The common ground here is that for people who are coming to the park and they want to see the Electric Map, it's a way to meet their needs," she said. Created in 1963 by Joseph Rosensteel, the Electric Map used lights to depict troop movements during the Battle of Gettysburg. It could be viewed by the public for $4 before the old visitor center on Taneytown Road was closed last April.

Though the Electric Map had originally been included in the park's general-management plan as one of three pay-to-see "interpretive venues," park officials ultimately decided not to reopen the exhibit at the new site on Baltimore Pike. They cited a lack of interest from the public and an opportunity for new technology. Then, a year ago, some suggested reinstating the Electric Map as a means of generating revenue after the park announced its plan to institute an admission fee for the previously free museum. Officials had projected a $1.78 million shortfall. But park and foundation officials said they believed the potential revenue from the Electric Map would not resolve the overall problem.

The Electric Map was disassembled earlier this year and placed in storage, where it remains today. But before it was taken apart, the Electric Map presentation was filmed, Park Superintendent John Latschar said Thursday. The film is being edited, he said.

"When it's ready, we're just going to run an experiment," Latschar said, adding that park officials have heard from many visitors who "desperately missed the map." The experiment, Latschar said, will be to show both the Electric Map film and "A New Birth of Freedom" simultaneously "and let visitors vote."

Asked to explain further, Lawhon said that doesn't mean the park intends to offer only the more popular film. Rather, she said, visitors will likely have a choice of which film they'd like to view before moving on to the Cyclorama painting presentation. That's possible because there are two theaters in the museum. Calling it a hybrid of old and new technology, Lawhon stressed the Electric Map film is still an experiment. "If we get it up and running, we would probably leave it as a second option," she said.

Text and Top Image Source: In York Daily Record
Image Caption: Light bulbs marked the troop movements on the old Gettysburg Electric Map. Blue showed the Union; orange, the Confederates.
Bottom Image and Source: Rosensteel descendant with Electric Map at old visitors center. Civil War Librarian Web Log April 4, 2008.

News---Gettysburg Is On the Money! For the Second Time!

Gettysburg The Face of New Quarter, Erin James, The Evening Sun, Seeptember 14, 2009.

So popular was the 50-state quarter series of 1999-2008 that Hanover coin dealer George Little said he could barely keep collection books on the shelves.
"We were selling state quarter books so fast we couldn't keep them in stock," said Little, who owns Little's Coins and Jewelry on Broadway. "They were very, very popular." That's hardly the reaction Little said he expects will be generated by the U.S. Mint's new America the Beautiful Quarters program - a 12-year initiative that will feature a national park or historic site in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.

This time around, the Hanover coin collector said he expects dust is all that will be collecting on the books. "My opinion is that they've just overdone it," he said. "It's definitely a repeat of the state (series)." Locally, however, Little said there's a little more hope for the series. That's because Gettysburg National Military Park - the 6,000-acre site of the Civil War's bloodiest battle - will be featured on Pennsylvania's coin. The coin featuring Gettysburg will be released in 2011. Specific release dates have yet to be announced, and designs have not been unveiled. As it turns out, this won't be the first time the Gettysburg battlefield has been the subject of a United States coin - a fact that even park officials were surprised to learn this week.

News that Gettysburg made the cut as Pennsylvania's representative national park in the America the Beautiful series was announced Wednesday and made headlines Thursday.

That same day, park spokeswoman Katie Lawhon said she was approached by a visitor to the new museum. The man said he'd heard the news and asked Lawhon if she knew about the 1938 half dollar that was minted to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg. Their conversation was cut short, but Lawhon said she was intrigued and returned to her office to do some research of her own. What she found is that Gettysburg was in fact the subject of a commemorative coin more than 70 years ago.

According to www.coincommunity.com - and various other coin-related Web sites - the 1938 half dollar was authorized in 1936 by the Pennsylvania State Commission, which sought to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the battle and the reunion of a few dozen living veterans from both sides of the war. The gathering was known as the Blue and Gray Reunion, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the Eternal Peace Light Memorial at the same event.

About 50,000 coins were originally minted, but fewer than 30,000 survived the decision of the Philadelphia Mint to melt those that proved difficult to sell. Lawhon said park officials were pleased to learn that Gettysburg would be the subject of the new coin. The park will also have an opportunity to provide input on the design, though "we don't have anything in mind at this point," Lawhon said. For Gov. Ed Rendell, the decision to recommend that Gettysburg represent Pennsylvania on the United States Mint's latest quarter series was hardly a difficult one, said Rendell spokesman Gary Tuma.

Gettysburg is both the most visited Civil War site in the country and one of the state's most popular tourist attractions, Tuma said. Lower on the governor's list of Pennsylvania parks to be considered were Valley Forge, Independence Mall and the Delaware Water Gap, Tuma said. But Gettysburg was the governor's preferred choice, he said. "It's as historically significant as any location in the United States," Tuma said.

Text Source: Evening Sun
Image Sources: Top and Middle Images and Bottom Image

Tuesday, September 08, 2009

Off Topic: NFL History--- Sixburg

Civil War Librarian with the six Pittsburgh Steeler Super Bowl Trophies On Display at the Senator John Heinz History Center.

Thursday, September 03, 2009

On the 2nd Manassas Trail: Locating Kettle Run at the Battle of Bristoe Station

On the evening of August 26, after passing around Pope’s right flank via Thoroughfare Gap, Jackson’s wing of the army struck the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Bristoe Station and before daybreak August 27 marched to capture and destroy the massive Union supply depot at Manassas Junction. This surprise movement forced Pope into an abrupt retreat from his defensive line along the Rappahannock River. On August 27, Jackson routed a Union brigade near Union Mills (Bull Run Bridge), inflicting several hundred casualties and mortally wounding Union Brig. Gen. G.W. Taylor. Ewell’s Division fought a brisk rearguard action against Hooker’s division at Kettle Run, resulting in about 600 casualties. Ewell held back Union forces until dark. During the night of August 27-28, Jackson marched his divisions north to the First Manassas battlefield, where he took position behind an unfinished railroad grade.

From Gerry Boehm, correspondent of Civil War Librarian:
This hot summer day in late August I joined the a small troop accompanying J. Michael Miller, our guide to Bristoe Station. We walked along a nearly dry creek bed, a feeder to Broad Run, south of Broad Run and north of Kettle Run. As pathfinders we sought out the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, hoping to see the battle flag of the 5th New Jersey beyond, but alas the regiment passed before we arrived. The 115th Pennsylvania, in the fog of war mistakingly shot into the 5th New Jersey's ranks. As we moved up aside the railroad toward Bristoe Station, I thought I could smell fresh Forno Brand coffee from New Orleans, either fresh off the campfire from this morning's breakfast or from the nearby homes of Bristoe Station. While on the excursion I walked beside the proud father of a VMI Cadet as we sought to locate where the 8th Louisiana had protected the Dement's Maryland (CSA) Artillery.

A poignant detail presented by Miller, our guide, was that General Hooker finally arrived at Bristoe Station to find an abandoned field hospital. Amoung the wounded was a dying German immigrant who moaned, "Oh! How hard it is to die, when I have been in this land only three months." As the son of German immigrant parents myself, these words suddenly brought me back to the present to pen my recollections of a most memorable battlefield tour. For those who missed the 2:00 PM tour or any of the other Prince William County tours of the Kettle Run Battlefield on Saturday, August 29th, in commemoration of the 147th Anniversary of the Battle of Kettle Run and Second Manassas, on behalf of the Civil War Librarian, I commend to you an excellent article by our brigade leader, Mr. J. Michael Miller, who penned an excellent and extensive article on this often overlooked affair, titled, "The Battles of Bristoe Station" in Volume 26, Issue 2 of the Blue and Gray Magazine. The killing fields of this battle had much to do with sealing General Pope's fate at Second Manassas and the sacrafices here must never be forgotten.

Introductory Text: Ohio State University
Pencil Sketch: Alfred Waud, Northern Virginia CC
Top Image (Boehm): Assault Path of 5th New Jersey
Middle Image (Boehm): Assault Path of the 115th Pennsylvania, 70th and 72nd New York
Bottom Image (Boehm): Line of 8th Louisiana at Kettle Run